Over the last few months, We’ve seen so many questions directly thrown at us or on Whats-app groups by farmers requesting to know how certain parameters are calculated for.

We’ve gathered this pieces to help you answer those questions by yourself.

To thrive in this poultry business you need knowledge, Experience and a lot of Passion.

It always important to make effort to know how calculate these on your own.

Poultry farming is not like any other business where you take some advice use same and it automatically works.

Here, You take clues from other people but manage things on your own. **THERE IS NO COPY and PASTE IN POULTRY**

Tailor all the information you gather from other farmers into your own.

The fact that Farmer A said his birds consumed × amount of Feed at age A does not mean your birds will consume same. Wɔfa (Uncle), **MIND YOUR OWN BUSINESS!**

First let’s take:

1. **Average daily feed consumption per bird:**

This is the amount of feed consumed by each bird per day. Before you attempt answering this question be sure you have your **BREED MANAGEMENT MANUAL**. It is very important as it guides you on the required consumption rate at each stage.

The Daily Feed Consumption is derived by first knowing **total quantity of feed consumed** ( in kilograms preferably)

Yes! You need to know the quantity of feed you are throwing into the Feeders per day.

This is divided by the **current total population of birds that day**. You can then Multiply this by 1000 to get the quantity of feed consumed per bird in grams.

**Example,** If Fiidar farms feeds 2 bags of 50 kg feed to his 1000 layers per day; To get daily feed consumption per bird:

First find the total amount of feed per day *(Number of bags x Weight of each feed bag) *

That is *2 × 50 kg =100 kg.*

**Feed consumption per bird** : *(Total amount of feed / 1000) *

i.e 100/1000 = 0.10 kg Morta

To convert this to grams we simply multiply by 1000

i.e. **0.10 × 1000=100g /bird/per day**

This means each bird consumed 100 grams of feed per day.

2. **Mortality rate in Percentage(%): **

Mortality rate is the percentage of birds that have been lost since receipt of DOC’s. This is calculated by adding up the **cumulative number of dead bird** so far, divided by **total number of chicks/birds stocked** in the poultry penn then multiplied by 100.

It is important for every farmer to get a record sheet upon receipt of DOC’s.

A good record sheet should have a sections for deaths that happen in the rearing. Always count your DOC’s before placing them in the housing.

**Example,** If Fiidar Farms placed 5000 DOC’s in their brooder house but have lost 73 after 16 weeks , What is the mortality rate ?

the Mortality rate % is (*Number of dead birds / Total number of DOC’s placed x 100*)

I.e MR = 73 ÷ 5000 ×100 = 1.46 %

This mean Fiidar Farms lost 1.46% of their total stock.

**3. Live-ability**:

Just as the name suggests, this is the percentage of birds that have survived this far out of the originally stocked population.

It is calculated by **subtracting the mortality rate** from **100%** where 100% represents the total number of DOC’s that arrived at the farm.

(*Live-ability=100 %-mortality %*)

**Example**, In Fiidar Farm’s case above,;

**Liveability = 100 %-1.46 %= 98.54%**

**4. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) :**

FCR is an important index in livestock production especially when you are handling meat breeds. FCR is the ratio of efficiency at which the bird’s body converts consumed feed in to weight gain.

This is determined by **dividing total feed consumed** by the **weight gained over same period**. It is particularly important in broilers and growers.

**Example** Fiidar farms purchased some Cobb broilers for Christmas, The total feed consumed by each bird in week 4 is 800 grams and the weight gained per bird in that week is 490 grams. Calculate the FCR.

FCR = (*Total feed consumed x weight gain*)

I.e 800 /490 = 1.63

This mean The Feed conversion Rate for week 4 is 1.63. **Note that the lower the FCR, the better.**

Lower FCR means the birds consumed little feed to gain higher weight while on the other hand higher FCR means more feed consumed with little weight gain.

For profitability in poultry production, a more efficient feeding, with quality feed that gives lower FCR is required. keep following us we will talk more on this Subject.

**5. Hen Day Egg Production (Laying rate):**

In layer farming the Hen day production rate is very important. This is also known as Laying rate or rate of lay. It is a measure of the total number of eggs produced by a flock per day or in a period in percentage.

In our part of the world where production cost is relatively higher than other countries, Rate of lay should be a handy statistic for every farmer to be able to determine whether he/she is making profit, breaking even or losing.

**Example,** If 3500 Hy-line brown in Fiidar farms produces 3159 eggs in a day, What is the laying rate( Hen Day production) for that day

Laying rate = *(Number of eggs produced ÷ Number of birds in flock ×100%)*

I.e (3159 ÷ 3500) × 100 = 90.26% (Not bad huh!)

This mean Fiidar farms is getting 90.26 % production from their Hy-line layers. Note the higher this rate the better.

**6. Space Requirement **

All poultry requires a standard amount of space in their cage. This requirement changes with time as the birds grow. It is always important to know the number of birds your Penn can accommodate to avoid overcrowding.

Space requirement for poultry varies and largely depends on the breed and system used. This is mostly embedded in your breed management guide but considering arrangement of feeders and drinkers and other stuff in the Penn;

– Layers/Cocks in deep litter require minimum 2.0 Square feet per Bird.

– Broiler in deep litter require minimum 2.2 square feet per bird.

Space requirement is calculated by **Multiplying the Length and breadth of your Penn; divided by the Required minimum space per bird**

**Example:** Fiidar Farms has a 50 × 25 feet Penn and intends to keep 1000 layers on deep litter.

Calculate whether the space is appropriate for the number of birds.

Space Required for layers = *(Length x Breath / 2)*

i.e. (50 × 25) / 2 = 625

This means Fiidar Farms cannot keep 1000 layers in a 50 × 25 ft Penn. It can only keep 625 layers . They would have to make their Penn a storey or build another Penn of same size to accommodate 1250 birds.

Another trick is to **multiply the Required minimum space per bird by the Number of birds you intend to keep**

This gives you the total required area in Square feet

i.e. 2 x 1000 = 2000 sq.ft.

Now divide this by the proposed length of the structure to determine the breath and vice versa.

i.e. 2000 / 50 ft = 40 ft

This means 50 ft x 40 ft Penn is enough to accommodate 1000 layers on deep litter System